据business-standard报道，David Marcus周日表示，Libra不会由一家公司控制。“从一开始我们就很清楚，像Libra网络这样的支付网络不应该由一家公司控制。”在30国集团（Group of 30）主办的论坛上，他重申了公司与监管机构合作解决其担忧的承诺。Marcus补充说，由21家公司组成的Libra协会将欢迎竞争，以造福当地人，并为消费者争取最低的成本。
据路透社报道，面对Libra被日益怀疑的态度，Facebook Inc（FB.O）周日表示，该计划可以使用基于本国货币的数字货币，例如美元，而不是最初提出的一揽子货币。David Marcus在一次银行研讨会上说：“该小组的主要目标仍然是创建一个更高效的支付系统，但愿意考虑使用其他货币代币的方法。除了拥有基于一揽子货币的稳定币外，我们还可以拥有一系列稳定币，美元稳定币，欧元稳定币，英镑稳定币等。我们可以通过创建大量代表各国货币的稳定币，来解决创建更高效的支付系统。我们关心的是任务，有很多方法可以做到这一点。”Marcus告诉路透社，Facebook仍打算在2020年6月推出天秤币，但承认由于监管方面的障碍，它可能无法实现这一目标。
BTC 核心开发者Jimmy Song今日发推称：法定货币不是真正的财产。所有的法币都是从中央银行租来的，它的价值可随时因任何原因被收回或扣押。而BTC解决了这个问题。
双子座交易所(Gemini Exchange)联合创始人Cameron Winklevoss近日发推：“自2008年金融危机以来，美联储已经印了2万亿美元(资产负债表增加了3倍)。这是你应该持有BTC的2万亿个理由。”截止到发稿，该条推特已经超过1300赞。
据Techsutram消息，印度最大私营集团Reliance Industries 宣布了其区块链计划，在流程自动化和增强决策的部分下，该公司列出了与电子提单（eBL）集成在一起以发行和管理eBL的区块链平台。报告还建议通过汇丰银行牵头的财团进行基于区块链的信用额度（LC）交易。
You Can Now Get a Master’s in Blockchain From a School in Malta
Malta, the “Blockchain Island” in the Mediterranean, has a government authority to certify distributed ledger platforms, regulations to manage smart contracts and a framework for launching ICOs.
Now it has a blockchain master’s program, too.
The University of Malta’s Masters Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technology began its inaugural semester this October, with around 35 students enrolled in the island nation’s only DLT-specific masters program – one of the few such programs around the world.
It is the latestcharge in Malta’s island wide embrace of just about everything blockchain, an effort now well into its second year.
When, in April 2017, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat unveiled plans for Malta to become a “global trail-blazer” in blockchain technology, it stood in stark contrast to most world governments’ reactions to DLT, many of whom were lagging – then as now –in how to proceed.
But the Maltese moved quickly. Lawmakers started passing blockchain-friendly laws and high-profile industry players – including Binance, the world’s largest cryptoexchange by volume, and OKEx- announced they would relocate to the island.
In less than a year the plan was paying dividends. Crypto firms were coming ashore and more businesses on the way.
Masters Program Director Joshua Ellul, who also heads Malta’s Digital Innovation Authority, told CoinDesk that in addition to the 15 companies who have already reached outto his DLT students, there’s high demand for government-run blockchain contracts, projects and initiatives.
Plenty of jobs –all looking for highly-trained, blockchain-fluent applicants.
“And this year, here you are,” Ellul told a crowd of students at Malta’s annual DELTA Summit, where, on Oct. 3, he kicked off the University of Malta’s DLT Masters program.“The future Blockchain and DLT specialists – who will lead and drive the Blockchain Island forward.”
With a little help from the government, of course.
An industry disconnect
Last year the Maltese government granted 300,000 euro (approx. $488341.5 AUD) to fund program scholarships. It also had a hand in its development, Ellul said.
The course trains students in blockchain law and regulation, business and finance, and information and communications technology. Students follow their focus concentration for three full semesters while gaining exposure to the two other fields.
Ellul told CoinDesk this academic diversity prioritizes a broad base of knowledge. Blockchain professionals were experts in sector of the industry, he said, but few could tie the other strands together.
Coders knew little about legal issues; lawyers knew less about launching a business; entrepreneurs just didn’t know how to code.
“We noticed a huge problem between techies and lawyers and business professionals,” saidEllul. “There was a communication disconnect between us.”
That gave him an idea:
“We thought: ‘this would be the perfect place to have a master’s, one serving the multidisciplinary purposes of the different specializations.’”
The program was developed by Ellul and Gordon Pace, a professor in the University of Malta’s computer science department and a member of its Centre for Distributed Ledger Technologies, which Ellul heads.
Malta’s Centre for DLT houses Blockchain Masters’ program. It became a proving ground and think tank in the Masters’ development as faculty from across the university gave their perspective on what should be included.
Pace told CoinDesk that he travelled around Europe speaking to field experts: “We had a feel about what they needed, what type of experts they needed.”
“Right from the very beginning the idea was to have a broad, yet deep program,” Pace said.
Lawyers who code
The masters’ program now gives students a thorough framework in their target discipline with a smattering of useful if hyper-specific tools in other blockchain fields.
Pace, who spent much of his career working on software assurance techniques before entering crypto academia to study smart contracts, will lecture students of all backgrounds on smart contracts – a technological advancement he called a “timebomb waiting to explode” in value.
In December he will begin teaching lawyers and business people how to program smart contracts.
“I hope the irreaction won’t be similar to yours,” Pace told this reporter, who has tried, and failed, to learn coding languages in the past.
But bridging that specialization divide is one of Pace’s favorite academic endeavors. And while the program might make smart contract gurus of the ICT-track students, it will also work to improve the knowledge of those less technically-minded students required to take the course, he said.
“I think that the idea they become literate in the technology more than masters is the key.”
Non-ICT students who spoke to CoinDesk for this article agree. Jessica Borg, a graduate of the University of Malta’s law and business programs who returned to study blockchain regulation part-time, will be taking the class in coming semesters.
Borg is a corporate and financial services manager at Grant Thornton Malta, where she said she has seen the impact of the government’s wooing of blockchain firms.
“We’ve seen a lot of volume and a lot of interest” in businesses looking to take advantage of Malta’s regulatory landscape. Borg said. That’s partly why she enrolled in the course: “I thought this was spot-on the next step in my regulatory development.”
Ellul, the program director, acknowledged that it can be difficult to design and launch a masters program for a field so rapidly evolving, in business practices,regulation and technology. What students learn one year might quickly pass into irrelevance the next.
But then again,most every tech-minded program faces this challenge; and Ellul said that University of Malta’s will change over time to meet the problems of the day.
He’s more interested in the caliber of multi disciplinary student the program might one day make.
“Over time, perhaps, we should start to consider training a hybrid programmer-lawyer: a law-grammer or let’s say a law-veloper,” Ellul told CoinDesk.
“It’s still early days to see whether we can achieve that.”
Traditional Law and Finance Can Adapt to Bitcoin, These Examples Show
Bitcoin brought about solutions to persistent problems that stood in the way of previous attempts to invent digital money, such as the risk of double spending. Some of its features, however, like the characteristic irreversibility of blockchain transactions, have created certain challenges for the traditional legal and financial systems. At times they may seem incompatible with cryptocurrencies, but that’s not always the case.
Legacy Legal Systems Facing Distributed Ledgers
Matthias Lehmann, director of the Institute for International Private and Comparative Law at the University of Bonn, explores some of the challenges decentralized digital currencies pose to the current legal systems and proposes solutions in a recently published article. But Instead of focusing on transfers resulting from fraud, like the media often does, the German professor turns attention to “less reported” but equally possible transactions.
Lehmann highlights two groups of problems – ‘endogenous,’ associated with faulty transfers where the sender commits a mistake or lacks legal capacity to make the transfer, and ‘exogenous’ problems, when a need for correction may arise because of events taking place outside of the blockchain. The latter category includes insolvency proceedings, for example, or succession of crypto assets. The distributed ledger technology (DLT) was designed to prohibit double spending, but it cannot reverse faulty transfers and does not allow for a transfer of title outside the blockchain, the scholar notes.
These are common problems and they are pretty standard in private law, the legal expert remarks. But imposing the ordinary rules of private law is not an option in the case of cryptocurrencies. That’s because of the irreversibility of blockchain transactions, on the one hand, and the difficulties in establishing the governing law, on the other. Instead of advocating the easy way out by rejecting what doesn’t fit into existing presumptions, Professor Lehmann suggests a workaround.
To fulfil its corrective function under such circumstances, private law may resort to implementing the concept of ‘obligation to make a transfer.’ The author further elaborates: “For instance, a person who has received a certain amount of Bitcoin by error could be obliged to send back the same amount. A transfer obligation may also be the remedy of choice to effectuate the rights of an insolvency administrator or the heir of an estate.” Other existing laws can be applied to permissionless networks too, like the law of torts in the case of acoerced transfer and the law of restitution to return crypto assets sent by mistake.
Matthias Lehmann thinks the validity of a blockchain transfer should not be assessed using the ordinary concepts of property law and insists that when a correction is needed, transfer obligations will do the job. Thus an “overly assertive role of the law that would make the DLT inefficient and ultimately unviable” can be avoided. The proposed solution corrects the results of a transaction “only to the extent necessary, using the forms and procedures of the DLT” and “dispenses with the need for identifying one national law governing the blockchain by distributing the applicable rules among the various affected legal systems.”
Daily Fixing Formula Proposed for Bitcoin
Decentralized digital currencies are also criticized by the establishment for their volatility which, according to the apologists of the fiat system, makes them inappropriate for a number of applications that require a stable unit of account. The rapid and sometimes significant change in market prices makes it hard to accurately gauge the value of items priced in cryptocurrency, they claim for instance, despite the existence of products and services that already bridge the gap between young, free crypto markets and traditional markets dominated by centrally managed fiat systems.
One of the characteristics of the crypto space that distinguishes it from the traditional financial world is that bitcoin doesn’t have a fixed exchange rate against other currencies such as those determined by central banks for fiat currencies. However, a reference figure like that is sometimes needed, for example, in court cases involving financial relations or when estimating someone’s tax obligations for holdings in a currency different from the national fiat.
The Russian Association of Cryptoindustry and Blockchain and the Russian Bar Association have recently proposed a solution. The two organizations came up with a formula to set an ‘official,’ so to speak, exchange rate for a particular cryptocurrency. Price data acquired from several digital asset exchanges every 30 seconds will be used to calculate a daily weighted average and the result will be published once every 24 hours. Taking that value as a benchmark, reference exchange rates against the U.S. dollar and the Russian ruble can also be determined and used in accounting.